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Which refrigerants are allowed worldwide on stand-alone units?

Undoubtedly, the phasing out of HFC refrigerants has already started. The prices of high GWP refrigerants are gradually rising while availability is decreasing. For instance, Honeywell announced a few days ago that they are going to stop selling R-404A and R-507 in Europe . At the same time, Chemours has recently announced consecutive monthly price rises of 25% and 30% for high GWP...
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New regulation on hospital humidification: cheap and clean, is it possible?

Air conditioning systems, including humidification, account for a major part of hospital daily running costs. Achieving energy and cost savings on these systems can bring considerable relief to hospital budgets, which often have to respond to public spending cuts and challenging energy consumption targets. The important question is therefore: can the need for humidification in...
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EuroShop 2017, the challenge of natural refrigerants

The fiftieth Euroshop held last March in Düsseldorf was the biggest in the event’s history. The organisers have announced record numbers: more than 113,000 visitors, a total of 2,368 companies exhibiting, 18 halls occupied and a net exhibition area of 127,000 m 2.   As regards commercial refrigeration, the sector I know best and have been dealing with for many years now, the...
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Humidity control in museums and libraries

The materials used to make the conserved artworks are the same as those already examined: canvas, wood, paper, parchment; nonetheless, the conservation of these requires limits that are much stricter than those relating to the material alone. An alteration in the dimensions of the canvas of a painting may cause the paint to peel; the same effect with wood may produce cracks in the...
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Ecodesign and Energy Labelling: making products smarter

The beginning of the 21st century. We are living in an era in which technology is progressing in leaps and bounds. This means that the concept of “best technology available” is constantly changing . That’s good news for consumers, because products are more and more efficient, which is very helpful when it’s time to pay the electricity bill. It’s also great news for the environment, as CO2...
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Vegas! So dry, so nice. Or is it?

Las Vegas, Nevada, the city of fun, gambling, good food and many, many wonderful shops inside glittering hotels! I spent there a few days there for the 2017 ASHRAE Winter Conference at the end of January, and indeed I enjoyed it. The seminars and conferences were very helpful and instructive. The weather was great, with the sun shining, blue skies and temperatures around 18 °C / 64 °F;...
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What was the HVAC/R sector talking about in Madrid?

Two weeks ago I was lucky to attend the Climatización y Refrigeración show in Madrid. It was exciting to once again see how our HVAC/R sector is not only thriving, but extremely active in the development of new solutions that the market is demanding. As predicted, this time the trends are mostly being driven by standards and regulations, specifically F-gas and Ecodesign in...
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Pros and Cons of Hydrocarbons as Refrigerants

Brief history of CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, HFOs and natural refrigerants The damage caused by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) to the ozone layer led to the establishment of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Enforced on 26 August 1989 and ratified by 197 countries, it replaced CFCs and HCFCs with other substances that have no...
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The materials used in artworks and their reactions to fluctuations in relative humidity

As seen in our post Artworks sensitivity to relative humidity , the characteristics of materials used to make artworks change according to the relative humidity of the surrounding air. In this post we will describe the impact of variations in humidity on the appearance and structure of such materials. Wood It is well known that wood has a significant moisture content , both...
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Will the new US government contribute to making the planet green again?

There is no doubt that around the world may people are wondering how the new United States government will act regarding a number of issues. Indeed, the environment is one area where there is a great deal of suspense , following the famous tweet by the new President " The concept of global warming was created by and for the Chinese in order to make U.S. manufacturing non-competitive " . ...
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Humidity Control + Energy Saving: is there a solution?

Humidity control in data centers has always been considered necessary in terms of preventing electric discharges . The use of traditional technology based on heating water to boiling point (isothermal humidifiers) is however costly in terms of energy consumption, while also requiring increased cooling capacity. Over time these factors have led to a debate over the need to control...
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One more step towards a “greener” planet

Unfortunately, problems are not always easily solved. This also happens with the “battle” between Mother Earth and refrigerants. At the same time as countries agreed to avoid increasing the hole in the ozone layer and the first positive results started to become evident, the Earth’s temperature continued to rise , and climate scientists were wondering why. The answer came after years of...
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Artworks sensitivity to relative humidity

The characteristics of materials used to make works of art change based on relative humidity. In particular, their moisture content tends to reach equilibrium with the humidity in the surrounding air. Fluctuations in relative humidity cause objects to change size , either expanding or contracting, resulting in deformations and even, over time, breakage . Materials that have these...
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It seems like we are doing something useful for the future of our planet!

Can you imagine all the countries in the world successfully agreeing on one topic and establishing a protocol ? This is something like what happened almost 30 years ago, in Montreal . A group of scientists decided to phase out the production of ozone-depleting substances, such as CFC and HCFC refrigerants , with the aim of protecting the ozone layer . The result so far: the hole in...
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What's refrigeration?

Both industrial refrigeration and air-conditioning are based on the same mechanism: a fluid, generally water or air, is cooled by evaporation of another fluid, called the refrigerant . The refrigerant circuit, comprising the compressor, evaporator, condenser and expansion device, is an integral part of both systems. Nonetheless, there are substantial differences between refrigeration and...
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What's air-conditioning?

  Air-conditioning is that process used to create and maintain certain temperature, relative humidity and air purity conditions in indoor spaces. This process is typically applied to maintain a level of personal comfort. It's also used in industrial applications to ensure correct operation of equipment or machinery that need to operate in specific environmental conditions or...
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